Quantum Computing, as we know, involves computer design and features with devices that practically work on the principle of quantum physics, where the computational power has been increased beyond what is attainable through classical mechanics. These computers have been now developed on a small scale, and the potential output using quantum mechanics lies far off from machines that we use on a routine basis. They store data in the form of qubits. Qubits are the quantum analog of classical bits, involving Boolean logic. The advantage of this computing means superposition of two states known to us 0 and 1 along with 0 and 1 individually, that could store more data hence enhancing the performance of basic computers that consist of on and off states only. For instance; Solving a 64-bit encryption (coding) key today about 2 to the power of 64 operations (which takes approx. 292.5 years) vs. 64-bit quantum computer taking one action.

These computers are built up using semiconducting devices, transistors that are expected to reach a minimum size for advancement in both speed and size storage, and integrated circuits. Materials used for making QC involve quantum dots (an artificial atom with electrons that are confined to 3D, includes enhancement in wireless properties, electrical fields, or natural coulombic repulsions for transmission of signals at a faster rate). And Quantum cellular automata, which are composed of several quantum dots confined closed to each other where signals propagated down the line by a cell, influence their neighbors hence using very little power. The storage of data is usually in the form of atomic quantum spins or steps. Working with these computers involves the principle of Moore’s law that states the number of transistors in this highly dense integrated circuit doubles every two years (per integrated circuit). Intel then brought changes in this law, which moreover served to be more of an observation than a fact that predicted the chip performance to double every 18 months with improvement in the speed and number of transistors used. This observation then changed into interpreting Moore’s law in different forms among various companies that took up this technique, which mostly described the driving force of technological and social changes, productivity, and economic growth. [line]

The two most important factors that describe the advantages and disadvantages of quantum computing are Quantum coherence and decoherence.

- Quantum Coherence: From Young’s double-slit experiment, proving, when two slits were made, the resultant recorded on a photographic plate showed multiple lines of darkness and lightness. This process was due to the interference of photons from the proton-photon beam traversing every possible trajectory on their way to the target. The ability to interfere and diffract is related to coherence of the waves produced at both slits. The waves interfere with a definite phase relation between different states.
- Quantum Decoherence: The quantum computer’s main drawback and strength rely on quantum decoherence. Coherence decays with time in this process. When these computers are not entirely isolated, it can be a disadvantage to this technique where quantum behavior might be lost. The interference pattern remains unobservable delocalizing phase coherence (constant path difference and same frequency of waves ), causing entanglement. Decoherence does not produce the actual collapse of waves but can only provide an explanation for the observation of their failure, and the quantum nature is lost into the environment, acquiring phases from the surrounding, providing a single state. This sophisticated technique involves calculations not only in our universe but also in other worlds simultaneously, which proves uncertainty principle wrong hence making predictions difficult, example; output for 1 and 0 : ( 4 results) 1:1, 1:0 0:1 and 0:0 ( lasts until superposition drops down to single state ).[line]

Simply put, they require that coherent states be preserved and that decoherence is managed, to actually perform quantum computation. It also involves crossbar switching, where molecules are placed in the intersection of wires for coupling and computational functions.

Google D-wave |

As a result, to be concluded, Quantum computing on a larger scale would provide better theories on the enhancement of the speed, storage, and functionality of computing facilities. Brought down to nano-scale, research in this particular field has grown to play a vital role in our lives. The ability of these computers to perform multiple computations simultaneously (quantum parallelism ) serves to multi-tasking and betterment in our technology. Manipulating our physical system to smaller-scale enhances their performance, with longer life-span and resolving problems to bring about quantum computers of higher bits, could make our lives convenient.

This particular topic of Quantum computing urges every astute mind to scout deep down, questioning the very basic laws of physics. These computational methods were just myths until Quantum AI Lab (QuAIL) was initiated jointly by NASA, Universities space research Association and Google inc.

Since its start-up in 2013, QuAIL has been working with many collaborators. They're currently working on quantum processors based on superconducting electronics. D-wave, famously known as D-Wave Quantum computer, is rumored to solve many byzantine problems like setting up an AI system, gene analysis for better drugs, space exploration, and so on.